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Reply to AAP Statement
British Journal of Urology March, 2007
A study in the BJU compared the sensitivity of
various parts of the penis (not just the glans as some previous studies have
done) in men who were circumcised and those were not and not surprisingly
found uncircumcised men had greater sensitivity. The study also discusses
the lack of previous research on this topic and makes note of the fact that
they were unable to test several points on the the circumcised penis since
circumcision had removed these areas of skin and the associated penile
Showtime's Penn & Teller: Bullshit!
Season 3 (2005) - Episode 1 - Circumcision
This episode discusses both circumcision and foreskin restoration. Wayne
Griffiths, co-founder of NORM, as well as several other experts are featured. See an
actual restored foreskin at the end of the episode. Available through Amazon streaming or
see Penn & Teller's website at
www.pennandteller.com for more options.
Wired Magazine - Foreskin Restoration - July 20, 2004
The article is titled "New Foreskin is Really a Stretch" and there is also a page showing some restoration devices
Mensight Magazine - 2004
Male Circumcision May Be Affecting Your Love Life by
Dr. Christine Northrup
FrontPage Magazine - November 6, 2001
Male Circumcision (Part 2) – Much More Than The Mutilation of
By Jamie Glaz. To read the article click here
Wall Street Journal - December 28, 2000
'Intactivists' Seek to Undo A Long-Practiced Ritual
By BARRY NEWMAN
Staff Reporter of THE WALL STREET JOURNAL
CONCORD, Calif. -- For over a century, in the belief that nature can be
improved upon, Americans have circumcised their baby boys. Today, the value
of circumcision as a health measure is in doubt in some quarters at a time
when face lifts, tummy tucks and breast implants have lost their ability to
Should it come as any surprise, then, that some men would try to regain what
circumcision took away?
"If you're willing to walk around with a pin through your tongue," says R.
Wayne Griffiths, one of the principal founders of the foreskin-restoration
movement, "this is not absurd at all." ... ( The full article is available to
subscribers at http://online.wsj.com/article/SB977961796953086118.html
[NOTE: We would like to point out that while many nerve endings and unique anatomical
structures are lost to circumcision, to our knowledge the number quoted in this article
of "20,000 to 40,000 nerve endings" is only an estimate and more research is needed to
determine how many are actually lost.]
Men reclaim the effects of childhood mutilation
by Julie Collins - Drake University - DRAKEmagazine Spring
Men across the United States – and worldwide – are reclaiming their
"manhood." And they're using weights, cones and even surgical tape as
their weapons of choice.
These men decided the circumcision they underwent as children – which they
consider akin to female genital mutilation – was unnecessary. So they're
undoing the work of physicians' scalpels by taking matters into their own
"Men feel anger or loss at being circumcised because they have been
denied a part of their bodies that is the most erotic without their
consent," says R. Wayne Griffiths, co-founder and executive director of
the National Organization of Restoring Men, a support group for men who wish to
reverse their circumcisions.
Rooted in religious tradition, circumcision became popular in America
because doctors believed it would cure masturbation. Even after masturbation
hysteria passed, forced circumcision increased during the World Wars, when
soldiers were circumcised for "hygienic reasons."
"Every reason to cut the genitals – particularly of children – has
proven invalid," says Marilyn Milos, a registered nurse from San Anselmo,
California, who runs the National Organization of Circumcising Information
Resource Centers. "Not one medical organization in the world recommends
circumcision, and some have begun warning against it."
Researchers have dispelled most of the justifications of circumcision –
including that foreskin causes penile and cervical cancers or increases the
risk of AIDS – yet circumcision is so embedded in American culture that the
procedure's unnecessary pain is still overlooked.
"It doesn't take long to talk a man back into his foreskin," Milos
says. "Ask, 'Why would you want to allow someone to amputate 20,000 to
40,000 nerve endings that provide you with wonderful, pleasurable sensations
and replace them with a scar?' Men under stand immediately."
Men who restore not only seek to gain what was taken without their consent,
but they also hope to obtain increased sensitivity, mobility and sexual
"The part of the male that is exposed after circumcision is really an
internal organ just like the clitoris – it's not supposed to be exposed to
the world," Griffiths says. "When you expose these nerves over a
period of time, they get irritated and calloused. When a circumcised man
reaches middle age, he has very few nerve endings left to stimulate."
Restored foreskin provides the protection and lubrication circumcised men may
But reversing the "little snip" isn't a simple process. When
restoration is done surgically, skin from the scrotum or another body part is
grafted onto the tip of the penis, which is painful and expensive. Non-surgical
restoration – a more popular alternative – involves tissue expansion. A
constant, gentle tension on the remaining foreskin gradually causes new skin
cell growth. Many men fashion their own restoration tools, typically involving
surgical tape, while others use commercial devices such as weights, cones and
elastic starter kits. When used correctly, none of the methods should hurt.
Depending on how severe the circumcision is – some men's circumcisions are
tighter than others – the procedure may take one to five years. "It's a
slow process because you have to be consistent and persistent," says
Griffiths, who restored his own foreskin.
Because foreskin is so personal, no one knows how many men are undergoing
the process. Griffiths estimates that as many as 30,000 men worldwide have
undergone some degree of restoration.
Many Web sites offer restoration information, advice and products. Jim
Bigelow's book "The Joy of Uncircumcising! Restore Your Birthright and
Maximize Sexual Pleasure," sold more than 18,000 copies in its first
printing and is now available as an e-Book through Norm.org.
Fine-Touch Pressure Thresholds in the Adult Penis
Sorrells, Morris L., James L. Snyder, Mark D. Reiss, Christopher Eden, Marilyn F. Milos, Norma
Wilcox, et al. (2007). Fine-touch pressure thresholds in the adult
penis. BJU International, 99(4), 864-869.
Morris L. Sorrells, James L. Snyder, Mark D. Reiss, Christopher
Eden*, Marilyn F. Milos, Norma Wilcox and Robert S. Van Howe Retired,
*HIV/AIDS researcher,San Francisco, CA, National Organization of Circumcision
Information Resource Centers, Department of Paediatrics and Human
Development, Michigan State University College of Human Medicine,
MI, USA Accepted for publication 22 October 2006
To map the fine-touch pressure thresholds of the adult penis in circumcised and
uncircumcised men, and to compare the two populations.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS
Adult male volunteers with no history of penile pathology or diabetes
were evaluated with a Semmes-Weinstein monofilament touch-test to map
the fine-touch pressure thresholds of the penis. Circumcised and
uncircumcised men were compared using mixed models for repeated data,
controlling for age, type of underwear worn, time since last
ejaculation, ethnicity, country of birth, and level of education.
The glans of the uncircumcised men had significantly lower mean (SEM)
pressure thresholds than that of the circumcised men, at 0.161 (0.078) g
(P = 0.040) when controlled for age, location of measurement, type of
underwear worn, and ethnicity. There were significant differences in
pressure thresholds by location on the penis (P < 0.001). The most
sensitive location on the circumcised penis was the circumcision scar on
the ventral surface. Five locations on the uncircumcised penis that are
routinely removed at circumcision had lower pressure thresholds than the
ventral scar of the circumcised penis.
The glans of the circumcised penis is less sensitive to fine touch than
the glans of the uncircumcised penis. The transitional region from the
external to the internal prepuce is the most sensitive region of the
uncircumcised penis and more sensitive than the most sensitive region of
the circumcised penis. Circumcision ablates the most sensitive parts of
Recent Studies on Tissue Expansion
These studies by researchers come to the conclusion that
stretching the skin too quickly (either by too much tension or for too long
without taking a break) can exacerbate tissue damage - and we want tissue
growth, not damage.
Experimental study on the change and effect of TGF-beta
1 after skin expansion
- Zhonghua Zheng Xing Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2002 Jan;18(1):33-5.
[Article in Chinese]
Liu K, Fan Z, Qian Y.
Department of Plastic Surgery, Ninth Hospital of Shanghai, Second Medical
University, Shanghai 200011, China.
OBJECTIVE: To study the injury process of the skin due to expansion.
METHODS: New Zealand rabbits were divided into 4 groups: rapid expansion
and slow expansion as well as two control groups. The changes of skin TGF-beta
1 were observed immediately after expansion and at 1, 12, 24 weeks after
expansion. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization technique were
applied. RESULTS: TGF-beta 1 increased in the skin immediately after
expansion. In groups of rapid expansion, TGF-beta 1 increased faster and
then decreased also faster than slow expansion groups. The results from
immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization were almost same.
CONCLUSION: Expansion resulted in skin injury. Rapid expansion injured the
skin more seriously than slow expansion. TGF-beta 1 may be the main
regulating factor to repairing process.
PMID: 11977619 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Investigation on skin retrograde degeneration after
- Zhonghua Zheng Xing Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2001 Nov;17(6):347-9.
[Article in Chinese]
Li J, Lu K, Ai Y.
Plastic Surgery Center, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University,
Xi'an 710032, China.
OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of tissue expansion on tissue damage and
retrograde degeneration. METHODS: 9 cases of conventional intermittent
tissue expansion (CITE) and 9 cases of continuous pressure-controlled tissue
expansion (CPTE) were chosen for the study. In creating of the expanded
flaps, tissue samples were taken for histopathology, molecular biology and
transmission electron microscope (TEM) examinations. RESULTS: Capillary
bleeding, elastic and reticular fiber proliferation, arteriole thrombosis,
fibroblast apoptosis and collagenolysis were observed after expansion.
Retrograde degeneration was obvious in CITE group and acute lesion was
obvious in CPTE group. CONCLUSION: Expansion stimulation induces tissue
damage and retrograde degeneration, which indicates that the time for
conventional intermittent expansion should be shortened and too fast
continuous expansion is harmful.
PMID: 11838058 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]